Keban is located on a peninsula almost 46 km north of Elazığ. The district center is located at the entrance of the deep splitting valley opened by the Euphrates River and north of the place where the Keban Stream is mixed with the Euphrates River, about 10 km south of Karasu and Murat rivers merging with the Euphrates River before the dam was built. It is surrounded by the Euphrates River from the north and west and the Keban Creek from the south and steep slopes from the east. Especially the eastern and southern areas have a lot of curvature, and the fact that the opposite sides of the Euphrates are very inclined limited the development in almost every direction of the town.
The Keban Dam was built on the beginning of the Keban Bosphorus in the lower part where the Karasu, Fairy water, Murat and Munzur rivers merged from the branches of the Euphrates. Before the dam, the Keban-Pertek formation, where the plains are located, and a part of Uluova is an important reservoir area.
Çırcır Waterfall has emerged due to water leaks in the lake once the water has been kept in the Keban Dam, the dam on the left bank of the Keban River. The source of the spring is not on the slope side of the dam but on the opposite slope, it is related to the paleocarstalization and the structure of the valley. In the Keban valley, there are mainly mica-schists and amphibolitic schists in impermeable features and permeable marbles on them. Water leaks have emerged from the left hillside because the micaschist and marble contours forming the impermeable zone are higher on the dam side of the villa and lower on the opposite slope. The waters followed the fault line between the marbles and the micaschists, the galaxies formed by the karstification in the marble and the marble micaschist contact. Water leaks have emerged from the left hill due to the fact that the micaschist and marble contact forming the impermeable zone is higher on the dam side of the villa and lower on the opposite slope. The waters followed the fault line between the marbles and the micaschists, the galaxies formed by the karstification in the marble and the marble micaschist contact.